Category Archives: Books – by Chuck Fager

Another for Dr. King: The Night March & The Killers

Selma, Alabama, February 1965


Jimmie Lee Jackson’s bullet-scarred headstone, near Marion, Alabama.

I was arrested again on February third, marching outside the Dallas County courthouse in downtown Selma. I spent the following ten days in jail. Half that time I was back in the county jail’s dayroom, where I had been crammed in with Dr. King and 200-plus other marchers on February First. on the third floor of City Hall. The second time I was in with a dozen or so teenagers, soon augmented by more voting rights marchers. Continue reading Another for Dr. King: The Night March & The Killers

Fifth Little Girl in ‘63 Birmingham Bombing Still Seeks Justice

[NOTE: Many supporters of the 1960s civil rights struggles in Alabama long referred to Birmingham, its largest city, as “Bombingham,” because of a long string (as many as fifty) of racist bombings and other attacks of homes and churches associated with the movement. Most remain unsolved. The most notorious of these attacks was the bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist Church, in which four young Black girls (Addie Mae Collins, Cynthia Wesley, Carole Robertson and Carol Denise McNair) were killed on their way to a Sunday School class, and more than a dozen others seriously injured.

The bombing happened on September 15, 1963. It was a Sunday morning, only eighteen days after the mammoth civil rights march in Washington, at which Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr. delivered his famous “I Have a Dream” speech.

The March on Washington, while marked by electrifying rhetoric, was peaceful from start to finish –confounding many segregationist predictions that any large black-organized assembly would necessarily degenerate into a riot. This triumph of nonviolence added to its aura of success.

The Birmingham church bombing came on September 16, 1963,  just over two weeks later, and shattered the euphoria as well as its direct victims. It was an outrageous reminder that the struggle for equality was a matter of life and death.

The FBI had reportedly identified identified the bombers, four members of a Ku Klux Klan terror band, by 1965, But there was no prosecution until 1977, when one of the bombers was convicted of first degree murder. Two others were not tried until 2001, thirty-eight years later. (The fourth died in 1994.)

The indifference of most authorities extended beyond those who were killed. The survivor story below describes how the personal impact of the time of terror in “Bombingham” –and the cry for justice, though fainter with age– continues after nearly six decades.]

AP News: Alabama sidesteps compensation for survivor of ’63 KKK blast

BY JAY REEVES — Sept. 16, 2022

BIRMINGHAM, Ala. (AP) — Sarah Collins Rudolph lost an eye and still has pieces of glass inside her body from a Ku Klux Klan bombing that killed her sister and three other Black girls at an Alabama church 59 years ago, and shes still waiting on the state to compensate her for those injuries.

Gov. Kay Ivey sidestepped the question of financial compensation two years ago in apologizing to Rudolph for her “untold pain and suffering, saying legislative involvement was needed. But nothing has been done despite the efforts of attorneys representing Rudolph, leaving unresolved the question of payment even though victims of other attacks, including 9/11, were compensated.

Rudolph, known as the “Fifth Little Girl” for surviving the infamous attack on 16th Street Baptist Church, which was depicted in Spike Lees 1997 documentary “4 Little Girls,” has been rankled by the states inaction.

Speaking in an interview with The Associated Press, Rudolph said thenGov. George C. Wallace helped lay the groundwork for the Klan attack with his segregationist rhetoric, and the state bears some responsibility for the bombing, which wasnt prosecuted for years.

“If they hadn’t stirred up all that racist hate that was going on at the time I don’t believe that church would have been bombed,” said Rudolph.

Rudolph attended a White House summit yesterday [Sept. 15] about combatting hatefueled violence, the anniversary of the church bombing, and was recognized by President Joe Biden:

Ms. Sarah Collins  Rudolph is also here today.  On this day in 1963, her sister Addie Mae was one of four little girls preparing for Sunday school who were murdered by white supremacists in the 16th [Street] Baptist Church bombing in Birmingham, which I visited.  Ms. Collins Rudolph survived the bombing but still carries the scars of that blast. 

Ms. Collins Rudolph, I’m honored to see you here again.  Thank you for being here.  I visited the church on this day in 2019.  And I’ll visit with you and always remember what happened. 

All these years later, Ms. Rudolph [and these others are] providing the evidence that we need, proving that grief is universal, but so is hope and so is love.

In Birmingham, hundreds gathered at the church for a commemorative service and wreathlaying at the spot where the bomb went off.

Rudolph said she still incurs medical expenses from the explosion, including a $90 bill she gets every few months for work on the prosthetic she wears in place of the right eye that was destroyed by shrapnel on Sept. 15, 1963. Anything would help, but Rudolph believes shes due millions.

Ishan Bhabha, an attorney representing Rudolph, said the state’s apology — made at Rudolph’s request along with a plea for restitution — was only meant as a first step.

“She deserves justice in the form of compensation for the grievous injuries, and costs, she has had to bear for almost 60 years,” he said. “We will continue to pursue any available avenues to get Sarah the assistance she needs and deserves.”

Five girls were gathered in a downstairs bathroom at 16th Street Baptist Church when a bomb planted by KKK members went off outside, blowing a huge hole in the thick, brick wall. The blast killed Denise McNair, 11, and three 14yearolds: Carole Robertson, Cynthia Morris, also referred to as Cynthia Wesley, and Addie Mae Collins, who was Rudolph’s sister.

Three Klan members convicted of murder in the bombing years later died in prison, and a fourth suspect died without ever being charged.

The bombing occurred eight months after Wallace proclaimed “segregation forever” in his inaugural speech and during the time when Birmingham schools were being racially integrated for the first time.

The church itself has gotten government money for renovations, as has the surrounding Birmingham Civil Rights National Monument, formed by President Barack Obama in 2017 in one of his last acts in office. “But not me,” Rudolph said.

Ivey, at the time of the apology, said in a letter to Rudolphs lawyer that any possible compensation would require legislative approval, said press secretary Gina Maiola.

“Additionally, in attorneytoattorney conversations that ensued soon after, that same point was reiterated,” she said.

No bill has been introduced to compensate Rudolph, legislative records show, and its unclear whether such legislation could win passage anyway since conservative Republicans hold an overwhelming majority and have made an issue of reeling in history lessons that could make white people feel bad about the past.

While the Alabama Crime Victims’ Compensation Commission helps victims and families with expenses linked to a crime, state law doesnt allow it to address offenses that occurred before the agency was created in 1984.

Rudolph has spent a lifetime dealing with physical and mental pain from the bombing. Despite her injuries and lingering stress disorders, Rudolph provided testimony that helped lead to the convictions of the men accused of planting the bomb, and shes published a book about her life, titled “The 5th Little Girl.”

Rudolphs husband, George Rudolph, said hes frustrated and mad over the way his wife has been treated. Victims of the Sept. 11, 2001, terror attacks were compensated, he said, as were victims of the Boston Marathon bombing in 2013.

Why can’t they do something for Sarah?” he said.


Reeves is a member of APs Race and Ethnicity Team.

Scooping the Times, With Grim Satisfaction

For a reporter, even a retired one, there’s a charge of adrenaline in a scoop — getting a story before other journalists.

And if the scooped rival is the Big Kahuna, aka the New York Times, there’s an extra kick to it.

So I’m preening this morning, after noticing that the august Times, fresh off stuffing another Pulitzer Prize into its warehouse full of such trinkets, catching up with reporting that appeared here more than five years ago.

This despite the fact that the story involved mostly delivered grim news.

Seeing the Times headline, “As a ‘Seismic Shift’ Fractures Evangelicals, an Arkansas Pastor Leaves Home,” my immediate reaction was — I admit it — “Well now, it’s about dam time.”

The point of the story was very familiar: Continue reading Scooping the Times, With Grim Satisfaction

King Day Special! “Eating Dr. King’s Dinner” – Told LIVE

This weekend, Chuck Fager told the true story of Eating Dr. King’s Dinner, by  Zoom at the  historic Fairfield Friends Meeting in Camby, Indiana, near Indianapolis.

The invitation came from Fairfield’s well-known pastor (and best-selling author) Phil Gulley.

You can now watch Chuck telling this story (34 minutes), right now, at this free link.

(You don’t need to register, and we won’t collect your data.) Continue reading King Day Special! “Eating Dr. King’s Dinner” – Told LIVE

Two Videos: “The Separation Generation” & My Odyssey in Brief

Two new videos are on my mind as this week opens:

The first was made last week, when three of us opened the door to what hopefully will become a much broader set of conversations about recent Quaker history, conflicts, and current issues.

We gathered for the Earlham School of Religion’s Authors discussion of our three-volume set, “The Separation Generation, “ charting a series of five recent schisms in American Quaker yearly meetings.

More than one hundred Friends and visitors joined us in person and via Zoom. They had lots of good questions, more than we could deal with in our limited time.

One of the most frequent questions, in Zoom  chat and later messages, was, “When will a video recording be available?”

I’m happy to say that the answer is, “Right now.”

The hour-long recording of the session is now on Vimeo, here.

Coauthors, from left: Stephen Angell; Jade Rockwell; and Chuck Fager

So if you missed it, or want to go over it again, now’s your chance. And you can still send in questions and comments to us, via this blog. Continue reading Two Videos: “The Separation Generation” & My Odyssey in Brief